Cancer is a type of disease that involves abnormal growth of cells that can invade or spread to other parts of the body. There are over 100 types of cancer, and the use of tobacco leads to 20% of the deaths. Another 10% of the deaths are obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet, and overconsumption of alcohol.
There are different types of cancer. Some of them are listed below, bladder cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, and many more. Out of these cancers, the most common cancer is breast cancer. In the United States of America, about one out of eight women, which is 13%, will develop invasive breast cancer in their lifetime.
Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer
Studies show that in 2021, there were estimated cases of 281,550 invasive cancer expected to be diagnosed in women, along with 49,290 new non-invasive breast cancer.
Some of the types of cancers are affected by the hormones such as estrogen and progestogen. These cancer cells attach themselves to these hormones, containing proteins that help them grow and spread.
To prevent this from happening, there is a procedure known as hormone or endocrine therapy. These treatments are done by reducing the hormone levels such as estrogen and progestogen levels.
These therapies have to be monitored as they can cause several side effects like hot flashes, joint pain, joint stiffness, which can lower the heart rate and increase the risk of a heart attack.
According to American Heart Association, if the treatment involves hormones then the heart rate has to be monitored. Hormonal therapies for breast cancer and prostate cancer increase the risk of heart attack and strokes.
The increased risk of heart attack is to the people who already have two or more heart factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, smoking, or a history of heart disease.
After skin cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer are the most common types of cancer in the United States and worldwide.
The improvements of hormone therapy are that those with cancer are living longer, but heart diseases are causing the illness and more deaths in these patients. The hormone therapies include tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors.
Studies show that tamoxifen increases the risk of blood clots and aromatase inhibitors increase the risk of heart attack and strokes more than tamoxifen. It is also found out that treatments with multiple hormones can also increase the risk of high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and blood clots.
For prostate cancer in men, androgen deprivation therapy is used to lower the level of testosterone. But this treatment increases cholesterol level, triglyceride level, boosts the body fat and, reduces the muscles, which modify the ability of the body to produce glucose results in type 2 diabetics.
These alterations in the body result in poor metabolism, heart attack, strokes, high blood pressure, heart failure, and death.
Hormone therapies can be given in many ways. Some of the general ways include oral therapy, where pills are given. Injection therapy where shots are given to the muscles of the arm, thigh, or hip.
Surgeries are performed to remove the organ producing the hormones. In women, ovaries are removed and in men, testicles are removed.
If the treatment is for breast cancer, regular tests will be done. Checkups usually include the neck, underarm, breast area, and chest.
Regular mammograms will be done to check if the hormone therapy is working. If the treatment is for prostate cancer, PSA tests will be done regularly. If the PSA levels go up, then the treatment is not working. That’s how one can check if the treatment is working.